That looks like a "66" block, replace it with a RJ45* socket block or blocks, and then use patch cords to connect a switch, or terminate the cat cables with Rj45 plugs and the plug them directly into a switch.
(*) not actually RJ45 but everyone calls them that.
Welcome to the awkward time period where they were using CAT5 in houses, but only using it for POTS lines (plain ol' telephone service). You're actually in luck, because this should all be good for Ethernet wiring, but all the connectors will be taken out.
The "patch panel" you have is actually just a punch down block where all the wires are ...