Washers are used for multiple purposes when mechanical parts are assembled using bolts and nuts. Here are some usages and as you can see it is not likely that a generalized answer can be devised to directly answer your question!
Some washers have a special design that attempts to help keep the nut and/or bolt from coming loose. Known as a lock washer these ...
The answer is surprisingly simple: the bolt expands, but the nut expands more.
What is happening here is good old thermal expansion:
The bolt is heated and expands outwards, its radius increasing
The nut is heated and... expands outwards, its radius increasing
Now, since the nut's radius is slightly greater than the bolt's, and since the increase is ...
Looks like an IKEA bed to me - something like the MALM or the HEREFOSS.
You first remove the metal rail, then undo the nut. The manual depicts a wrench (ikea part 113453) but a regular metric 13mm wrench reportedly works fine. From the assembly instructions:
The secret is constrained expansion.
Here's some cruddy diagrams to help explain how it works.
Bolt stuck in a hole
When the bolt is heated, it expands. Since the shaft of the bolt is constrained, it can't expand inside the hole.
The bolt expands in the direction of the green arrow, but cannot expand in the direction of the red arrows.
As the bolt ...
That is called a blind jack nut, jack nut, blind collapsing nut, etc.
They are typically used when you don't have access to and/or don't have the tools to hold onto a nut on the backside of whatever you're putting it into. As you turn the bolt the wedge will move along its length, moving into/out of the split nut which adds/removes force that pushes the ...
The actual reason this usually works is that rust is significantly larger than the steel it's rusted from, which is why the bolt is stuck in the first place. In some other instances the reason heat works is that the bolt was applied with a threadlocker that requires heating to remove (if it comes out with no sign of rust, that's a pretty good bet)
That's likely a cleanout for your sewer line. When opened, you can run an snake down the line to remove any blockage without ripping out your entire foundation. Here's what it would look like from the side:
And the cap itself can have different styles:
The best solution is to purchase a new set of bolts that are made of stainless steel or brass. Both will not rust the same way that a iron or steel bolt will. They will cost a little bit more but will pay back in the long term.
My experience has been that the brass bolts after years can sometimes build up their own kind of corrosion that can make it ...
It is called a "hex key", "Allen key", or "Allen wrench".
You can also find socket wrench tools with this hexagonal drive shape. Hex key socket wrenches are almost always stronger than Allen keys, and less likely to round out the screw head.
Both the fasteners and the tools shipped with Ikea furniture kits are necessarily the cheapest that can still do ...
I would caution against using any bolt cutters on the toilet hold down bolts. The reason being that they typically will apply a significant pressure against the porcelain base of the stool and crack or break it.
Another thing to consider is that bolt cutters typically have a jaw profile as shown below. With this type of arrangement it is just not possible ...
As you have found out, curtain rod supports do not do well hanging from plaster anchors. They really should be attached to studs, but where that is impossible, toggle anchors give you a chance at success. I prefer the solid bar type that pivots after insertion.
The drywall in the immediate vicinity is beyond saving. Even toggles will not have much solid to ...
You need to pre-drill a large but shallow hole of the correct depth, and use the bit size recommended by the manufacturer for the material you are setting those into. Too small and you'll crack the wood/whatever. Too big and they won't hold. It matters.
You might want to try on some scrap first.
Did the supplier provide these nuts full knowing that ...
It's called a spanner slotted (or slotted spanner) head. Useful site here. Hard to find in the UK, why the owner used one I cannot imagine. Screwfix doesn't have them. This site may do, although it is international. You'll need to figure out the correct size before you order.
Alternatively get a real cheap flat-head screwdriver the right width and file ...
This is a pop rivet, not a bolt. It can only be removed destructively.
Drill out the center with a drill bit meant for metal (as opposed to a brad point bit, for instance) until the flange come off. Use a bit roughly half the diameter of the flange.
When the flange breaks free, it will get stuck on the tip of your drill bit, which you will then remove ...
I'm a gas fitter and service tech. My bag has the tools to do the job. Sometimes these tight spots require a bit of a turn with one tool and a bit of a turn with another. A lot of the available arc can be chewed up by lash, torsion and flex of components. The first tool I'd reach for, for something like this is a line wrench. I'd get a 12 point
This is a tamper proof torx screw. There are torx bits with a hole in the center that will remove them, if you are bold you can try smacking the center pin with a punch at an angle (small ones usually snap off) and then a standard torx bit can be used to remove it. Check online and I bet you can find a tamper proof bit kit for under 15$.
Remove the metal rail.
In the opening, you now have enough room to insert an open-end wrench.
The wrench has a slight angular offset. Push down on the wrench as far as it goes, remove it, flip it over, reinsert it into the hole and repeat ad nauseam.
Alternative: access the bolt head from another place.
What you may be overlooking, or what may not be present on your wrench, is the the open wrench is not square to the shaft. It is canted by 1/24 of a circle (15 degrees).
As a result, there's a 30 degree difference between the wrench (normal) and (flipped).
That means you only need a 30 degree arc of motion, not a 60 degree arc. When you run out of ...
The best tool I have found for the type of application you are working with is a 12-point split-box wrench. These are also available in a 6-point design.
(Picture Source: http://constructionmanuals.tpub.com/14256/css/Types-and-Uses-Continued-156.htm)
The split end lets the wrench get onto a fitting even when a tubing is inline. The box construction also ...
It looks like a spanner tamper-proof security bolt. Either buy a set of tamper-proof security bits, or modify a cheap standard slotted screwdriver with a dremel tool. Here is a cheap set: https://www.amazon.com/Performance-Tool-W8659-Security-32-Piece/dp/B002KS19PK/ A good chance that something in this set will work, but no guarantee.
If there is only one washer used with a nut/bolt, it usually goes on the nut side.
The nut in most circumstances is more movable, and is more commonly turned to tighten the assembly. The washer helps prevent damage to the surface of the object being fastened. In most cases where the bolt is easier to turn, the bolt has a round head that will cause less ...
While difficult to tell for sure I think it is an E-Z Lok threaded insert. It consists of a course threaded screw that is inserted into the wood. A pilot hole is drilled and the insert is screwed in with a Allen wrench until it is flush. The center of the insert is tapped for a machine screw. The advantage of this fastener is it can be disassembled numerous ...
You could install a few of these three prong tee nuts on the back of your board before it's attached to your studs and then bolt the inverter from the front. I'm curious why you'd "feel better" with two bolts instead of four.
Metal arranged in a ring expands outward when heated. Imagine a ring of thin wire being heated--it expands primarily along its length, making both the inner and outer diameters larger. The same occurs with the material around a bolt hole.
Generally, I try to heat the surrounding piece and not the bolt itself. However, even if the bolt is heated directly, ...
I would try a Dremel type tool with an abrasive cutoff wheel. Of course you need to be careful of the porcelain. I've cut many screws and bolts this way.
If you can't cut the bolt, you may be able to cut the nut, in the direction of the bolt's axis, then pry the nut apart at the cut line.
You'll need to drill holes for the sleeves the same size as the shaft, then thread them in using an Allen wrench that fits the larger sleeve socket. They're essentially screws themselves.
I'd have expected that the hardware kit specified a bit size. Check the packaging, and check the hardware itself for markings.
On a side note, I wouldn't trust just ...