Frame the walls first
In most basements I've seen (not sure this is a basement but the same principles apply), you put framing up like any other room. This allows you to set straight studs up (doesn't matter how non-plumb your walls are) AND allows adequate room for things like electrical wiring.
To just answer your question and not debate whether it's the right way or not, use 3/16" x 1-1/4" flat-head Tapcons. You'll need a 5/32" masonry drill bit. Use a regular Phillips screwdriver to screw them into the block and sink them just below the surface of the drywall like you'd do a regular drywall screw.
Leave it as-is, but add furring strips to the wall studs to bring them in line.
I would increase the thickness of the furring strips in steps of 1/8" across the length of the 16' wall.
start with a pair of 1/2" strips
then drop to 3/8" for the next 3
then 3 at 1/4"
then down to 1/8 for 3 more
then leave the last few with ...
Any true concrete drill like this 4.2A Makita will work. Any drill with a chuck that takes an sds-plus bit should work. 3/8" holes are not particularly a big deal.
Some "hammer drills" have a regular drill chuck that you can use a masonry bit, but you would likely be just as well off using your forehead.
Drywall won't be a problem but if you tile the floor and put in a drop ceiling, then you'll notice it and installing those will be a little more difficult. Whether you fix the problem or let it ride depends on your ability to live with the mistake.
Drywall is installed on wooden framing, or on furring strips which are attached to the masonry wall. It's a good idea to put a moisture resistant barrier or coating over the masonry before installing the furring strips.
It is critical that the mounting surface be perfectly flat.
It's not about amperage...
Hammer drills are garbage. In a hammer drill, the whole chuck moves back and forth, and that imparts some motion the the drill bit. Most of the power is wasted moving the chuck (which is heavy) back and forth, and very little power ends up doing useful work.
So instead you get a rotary hammer with a SDS chuck. This has a pneumatic ...
0 Amperes. Grab a star drill and a hand sledge and your safety glasses and ear muffs and have at it.
Now, if you'd like to do it faster, you might want more. If you are mainly doing this one project, then see what your rental center has for a hammer drill to rent, and use that, and return it when done. Other than that option, any hammer drill will do it, and ...
I'm with the comments that say "move it". This isn't an absolute statement, though, and there's not really a wrong answer.
In favor of moving it: cutting nails/glue isn't that hard if you have a reciprocating saw and a handful of metal blades. Tile/flooring, drop ceiling, drywall, built-in cabinets/counters will all be easier and less obviously ...
I've had a related situation when finishing my basement - the wall next to the stairs was concrete, and the width of the stairs didn't allow for framing or even furring strips and still keeping the needed 36" of width.
After consulting the inspector, I glued 1/4" drywall directly to the concrete. In my particular case the concrete wall was facing ...
Put the stopper in and fill the tub. Check the stopper is actually watertight.
If it leaks, then the leak is above the stopper. If it leaks only when water reaches the overflow, then it's the overflow. Otherwise, it's the joint around the drain hole on the inside of the tub (red arrow).
If it doesn't leak with the stopper in, but leaks when the drain is ...
You can't. There is no drywall where specifications are for direct exterior concrete framing. Moisture will get trapped between drywall and concrete - even if you live in a desert - and this will be a moldfest within a year.
If you want to go directly on the CMU then you must use concrete board. And you can use thinset to secure the concrete board.
That is quite a drastic slope but I have seen it before and have installed vinyl, tile and carpet in similar setups.
Dricore systems are for huge basements in cool climates. NO WAY in he!! you should install their base system in that basement. The pieces are heavy and if you have water you will want to move them. Their dricore insulated ...