It's just a typical floor drain, and it's the ideal place to drain your dehumidifier. What you see is the water trap, which prevents sewer gas from escaping. It presumably connects to your sanitary sewer, so be conscientious about what you dump into it.
Here's a modern drain just to illustrate the trap concept:
Summary... 100% add the duct work. It will be cheaper in long run, look better, and will increase resale value of the home.
Few things here:
Once you add those walls/ceilings (given it is not a drop ceiling) adding duct work will be very costly and messy. This is sort of like running ethernet cable throughout the house, but air ducts probably have ...
TL;DR Space heating doesn't make sense in a typical US house that already has duct work in place.
There are, broadly speaking, 3 types of home heating in general use in the US:
Fossil fuels - Natural gas (generally most cost effective) or oil. If you have this, it would definitely be forced air, as that matches "duct work".
Electric resistance ...
One thing you could consider would be to install dampers in the duct work to close off various legs of duct. This would allow you to have heat available anywhere in the house you want, but to close off areas from heating when you don't want them to be heated. This would, effectively, give you multiple zones, though they'd be manually controlled.
Also, adding ...
This is a regular basement floor drain. there is a trap below the slab and that's why you see the water... that's a good sign. You should get a drain cover from your home store similar to the one below. Measure the diameter of the drain and hit the home store or a plumbing supply store for the cover.
My first thought is it’s a floor drain until I notice it is close to the wall.
This is a location for a clean out. Can you see standing water?
If it is a clean out and not a floor drain it should not be left open.
If you see standing water indicating a p trap below the floor it is a standard floor drain and would be fine to continue to use for the ...
I am trying to figure out if this pipe is the vent from the main
It is a vent, it is coming off of the top of a sanitary tee so it is a vent for a fixture (Bathroom sink) that would be attached to the SanTee.
The pipe coming form the bottom of the SanTee is the drain for a fixture that would be attached to it.
The hole in the floor should be the ...
Number of fixtures is easily reduced by using long fixtures:
4 or even 8 foot fluorescent tubes, for instance.
45 foot long LED strip lights appear to be available, on a casual
Strings of small lights on cords (fairy lights, Christmas lights) hung from hooks.
Whether that's the lighting you want is a whole different question and mostly off-topic as ...
I don't think you're "over thinking" the situation at all. "Water that is shooting out during heavy rains" is not something that should be neglected. Yes, you have drain tiles and a sump pump but power goes out and batteries to run the pump can prematurely discharge; now you're flooded.
It seems to me that if the basement isn't finished (...
Providing proper drainage outside combined with sealing is my preferred method. I have had walls that may have been close to what you have I dug down installed drains and backfilled with rock (no dirt) that home went from rivers on the floors to dry walls. If possible to divert the water before it enters it takes less energy to have a comfortable basement in ...
Self levelling low-spots only, and optionally adding plywood to smoothen the rest.
"self levelling" cement is not liquid as you think and you can apply it in patches without worrying that it will run like water. You have some troweling time to work low areas as large as say 5x5 ft.
Lacking context, it's either a cleanout (normally at the bottom of a flue) or a disused thimble (place where a pipe used to connect to the flue) with a cover/plug in it (the half-rusted bit with the handle) - "cleanout cover" and "end cap" and "flue plug" are all possible names when searching. Add the diameter of the pipe/hole ...