17

Someone forgot a fitting Normally, armored cables (like yours) are brought into a box using a fitting designed to clamp the the cable armor, grounding it to the box and also providing a strain relief for the cable inside. Your furnace installer didn't have that fitting on hand, though, so they simply shoved the cable through the hole and shoved a "redhead" ...


15

Ignoring expensive crimpers, Ideal Twister Al/Cu (purple) wirenuts are NEC compliant. (Your jurisdiction might vary.) They are not for use on aluminum to aluminum connections (which is a little baffling to me, but I digress). You can find some controversy on the net about the safety of these, so read up and decide if they're appropriate for you. Another ...


12

Kill two birds with one stone. Given the aluminum wiring, you really want AFCI breakers in the panel. That will catch most aluminum wire failure modes. Thing is, once you are committed to an AFCI breaker, an AFCI+GFCI breaker is only $10 more. All breakers are Cu-Al rated, which is a standard for breakers. This standard is fully modern and usable. Not ...


10

Straight out of the National Electric Code 2014 Splicing wire connectors are required to be marked for the material of the conductor and for their suitability where intermixed. Splicing wire connectors, such as twist-on wire connectors, are not suitable for splicing aluminum conductors or copper-clad aluminum to copper conductors unless it is so stated ...


7

I bought a house with aluminum wiring so I had to educate myself on what was so different. The only way considered safe to connect copper and aluminum is through a splice connector. Specifically, you have to connect the wires individually so they are not prone to corrosion. The Ideal connectors (purple, for aluminum) are not considered a good fix because all ...


7

Aluminum wiring is not the fire hazard people would have you think it is. In fact it is perfectly safe and there has been studies showing that the only increased chance of fire is produced with an improper installation. This usually means that contractors using outlets or devices that are not rated for aluminum. This does cause the wire to eventually ...


7

Use a mechanical lug connector ("Polaris" or equivalent) AlumiConns are only rated for a maximum of 10AWG wire. For fatter work, you'll want their bigger brothers, mechanical lug connectors (sometimes called "Polaris connectors" after a common brand name) -- the smallest size of them is generally rated for wires anywhere from 14AWG to 4AWG, and as a rule, ...


6

You can use the 10AWG copper for your EGC, provided the conductor is bare or insulated with a green or green + yellow stripes finish -- 250.118(A) doesn't say anything about not being able to use a grounding conductor made from a different metal than your circuit conductors: (1) A copper, aluminum, or copper-clad aluminum conductor. This conductor shall ...


6

I am a licensed electrician in Connecticut. My own condo has aluminum wiring, I highly recommend the alum.con connectors because they are homeowner friendly. Two methods are presented: a special torque screwdriver (recommended) a set of specific instructions for the number of turns on the copper side/aluminum side. These connectors are quickly becoming ...


5

My SOP is to do switches or outlets one by one, in the sequence I find convenient. I turn off the one circuit it's on. And then I handle it as if it's energized. (Electrocution requires a path through your body, so you are particularly in danger if your body is also in contact with some other wire or object such as a pipe that is grounded) that would ...


5

I got an answer from my electrician. Here are the options in order of preference with pros and cons Replace the panel - Pro: all new box and breakers; Con: Somewhat expensive Replace with "cheaters" to make space - Pro: Cheaper; Con: Still expensive (labor) and the wires may not be long enough to reach where they need to reach. Replace the 220v A/C ...


5

There's a decent discussion about making aluminum wire connections over here: What's the best way of replacing a plug or switch in a house with aluminum wiring? If there is #12 Al wire on the circuit, the breaker should be 15A. #10 aluminum wire can have a 20A breaker, and you shouldn't normally see anything like #14 aluminum. Or you could just pull new ...


5

This doesn't sound like a technical question. You didn't maintain the AL wiring properly... it had a problem... should you replace it? The real question is do you trust yourself to maintain it going forward? Same exact thing probably would've happened with copper. I do systems rollouts within enterprises, where you get employees to switch to a new ...


4

It seems that the manufacture does not suggest to reuse the connectors. For instance, this document here states "Do not reuse" in the "product specifications & measurements" section.


4

Splitting #6 strands to fit on two #10 lugs No, it's illegal to split wires like that. Aside from failing on 110.12 "neat and workmanlike", it is also paralleling (not allowed without special apparatus) and 110.3b "using a product inconsistent with it labeling/instructions". You need a lug connector rated for #6. Looks like an Alumiconn but is rated for ...


4

Almost everything in mains is done in hot-neutral pairs. GFCIs are no exception. LINE has 2 terminals, brass and silver, and is used by a hot/neutral pair - both black and white wires go to it. These would be your two pigtails. LOAD is used not at all, unless you intend to use the particular feature it supports, and you know exactly what you're doing. ...


4

The red alert here isn't actually the aluminum wire. It's the multi-wire branch circuits particularly when combined with double-stuff breakers, with that stacked on top of a 1970 era panel. Aside from the usual horror-shows like Zinsco, FPE, Challenger (that one's fixable) etc., there's also the inherent fact that 1970s era panels are much too small. That ...


4

The problem is actually the panel And the crux of the problem is the panel is overstuffed and lacks space for the protective devices which make the aluminum issue largely moot. So if I pressed for any concession at all, it'd be for either a new meter-main with a 40-space panel, or simply a 30-space subpanel. That way you'll have enough breaker spaces for ...


4

You mean like a rattail or Western Union splice, Al-Cu? Your first problem is that soldering in general is so alien that an AHJ is likely to reject it out of hand, even if it were all Cu. The ruling would likely be "You can solder if you can show how every other splicing method is impracticable". But when it comes to Cu-Al splicing... NEC 110.14 ...


4

Parts for that model are still available. Instead of trying to fabricate your own solution you can buy a new cord with connector for under $30. GE P/N AP4412100. I'd also inspect the mating connector and replace that component too if it shows damage.


4

You'll want 14/2 NM... The rule for converting between aluminum and copper wire gauges is that in order to carry a given amount of current, you need an aluminum wire two sizes larger than the copper wire you would have used. So, a 12AWG aluminum wire is rated for the same 15A as a 14AWG copper wire is, and NM is apropos since jurisdictions that don't ...


3

If your goal is safety, install AFCI breakers. The main failure mode of aluminum wire is arcing as a result of corrosion, and that's what AFCI breakers detect. If your goal is compliance with a gold standard so you are lawsuit-proof, then CO-ALR receptacles will suffice. That's not my opinion, it's Underwriter's Laboratories. They listed these items as ...


3

Have you considered having a witch doctor chase the wolfram demons away? Seriously, that would be the same kind of improvised guesswork "spray and pray" that you're talking about here. Focus on what is known to work. AFCI breakers What are you concerned about? Fires. Why? Because temperature changes, plastic deformation, dissimilar metals corrosion, ...


3

First off, the first electrician is wrong in saying that the use of a crimp-type terminal in house wiring is categorically unsafe. Crimp-type terminals listed under UL 486A for use on solid wire of the given gauge are considered acceptable for use in building wiring, as per UL 486A section 1.1: These requirements cover pressure wire connectors and ...


3

I think you're confusing Alumi-conn connectors (which do have a recommended torque) with CO/ALR. A normal CO/ALR outlet simply needs to be hand tight. I've never seen any specification listed for torque, nor have I ever needed to use my torque screwdriver on one. Leviton's CO/ALR installation instructions do not list a recommended torque.


3

So long as you only need GFCI at the one outlet, and not the rest, you can install a GFCI here on the pigtails, connecting to the LINE terminals (only) White (neutral) to Silver and Black (hot) to Brass. LOAD are not used. You cannot GFCI protect the rest of the outlets that follow without (inferring from what you have written about "closest to panel" yet ...


3

Out of Balance The first, and foremost, concern is that your MWBC doesn't follow the rules needed for a MWBC, and in fact won't work, even, as the shared neutral will cause imbalanced current into the GFCI in space 4, tripping it. You can fix all the issues with this MWBC in a single stroke by getting a QF220A and putting it in spaces 3 and 4, then landing ...


3

I would guess that that's tin, or some other solder alloy. Coating copper in tin makes a surface that wont oxidize as much (or in the same way, I'm not sure). This is good when you're expecting to need a surface contact later. You can tell if that's what you're seeing, by snipping the end off with some (sharp) clippers. If the cut is clean, you should be ...


3

This is tinned copper, for sure Device pigtails, for flexibility reasons, are often made from a finer-stranded copper that is tinned to protect it from corrosion, and may have its ends soldered to allow it to be easily terminated into wirenuts and push-in type connectors. (While tinning wire ends is not a recommended practice due to fatigue issues, it can ...


3

You aren't quite right about aluminum. The problems which plagued aluminum are about small branch circuits, and terminations/splice methods that were made for copper only and hastily rubberstamped for aluminum without proper testing. These problems have been fixed in a feeding frenzy of overkill - a new termination rating (CO-ALR rather than Cu-Al), the ...


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