Replacing walls in basement due to flooding. Contractor installed sump and drain pipe around the inside of the cinder block wall. I want to put in new wall, concerned that TapCon or other hammer/gun attachments will compromise the cement cover over that pipe. Can I just use liquid nails?
I have found liquid nails on a few jobs in the past that did appear to work but is not code in my area. The 2x4 placed flat on the wall only needs an inch and a half to be code. The minimum wall thickness for a single story here is 6" and 8-12" on taller structures. Most modern basements were poured with forms that have straps or snap pins holding the forms from blowing out. These go all the way through so I don't think there would be a problem with Tapcon or expanding anchors. I have used both on my homes and jobs with no negatives. Tapcons will strip out if over tightened so I now use 3" long Hammer set expanding anchors. They are a bit more expensive but I have never had one pull out on studs or back planes for electrical panels.
I'd trust construction adhesive without any mechanical fasteners if you fit your new wall framing snugly. The friction provided by well-fit studs along with the glue will result in a bond that won't likely ever move.
Exceptions would be if you intend to ever mount very heavy items on the wall, or if you have heavy solid-core doors in that location.
All that said, your concerns about damaging the concrete are probably not warranted, assuming a full-thickness slab (4" or greater). Drill gently and you'll have no problems.
I wouldn't fasten any wood (even pressure-treated) to undergrade concrete without a vapour barrier in between the two. Concrete is porous, and will without doubt enable moisture to wick into the wood, leading to rot or mould. It's not difficult to run a 12"-wide strip of polyethylene plastic under the wood, which will extend the life of any wood on concrete, and is good construction practice anytime wood meets concrete.
Then tapcon the wood to the concrete.