I was told that I could find some angle brackets to secure the post to the beam. However, I'm finding nothing that doesn't require me to remove the set beam and start over. What is code? Is this going to be a custom / metal shop deal at this point? I'm fine with a black angle bracket that I can paint to match other hardware in this area of the house. Thoughts?
Plenty of 1950s/60s gluelam post and beam that are attached with a straight steel heavy strap going from the post to the beam, with bolts through to one on the other side. No need for an angle-bracket, per se. They could also be lag bolted in, but through-bolting with machine bolts and nuts is what I've seen on those buildings. Then again, a stock nailplate truss connector would probably also work (if you need anything - might depend on your earthquake exposure, but then you get back to "what did the engineer specify?")
The question is vague, but here are my "thoughts":
In all my years of remodeling, never did we use metal brackets in cases like this. I've opened many dozens of rooms with larger beams than were originally built into the home, and we always simply fastened the beams in place with nails. Toenail into the king and trimmer studs and call it good.
The beam isn't going anywhere. The only way it could is if the supporting framing somehow shifted. If your studs are also fastened in place, there's no concern.
If you really want to bracket them in place, any old metal bar or strap will do. You may want to chisel out a channel for them, though, so they don't hold out the drywall and cause a bulge.
We don't toenail beams to posts anymore. We've learned that wind (you say you live in a tornado area) and seismic will destroy a toenailed connection. The Code does not give strength (resistance) values for toenails.
There are several types/designs for this application. I'd go to Simpson Strong-Tie website: www.strongtie.com or local lumberyard and try: LCE4 for 4x and 6x posts, or ACE4 (similar), or My favorite and it's decorative: APL4 and comes in black. (There are larger versions, but this will work on your columns.)
In any event, I strongly recommend a bracket. That's an important connection in your house. Don't rely on "toenails".