I have a Bachelor in electrical engineering, a lot of hands-on experience with electrical work, and I'm very familiar with NEC 2011 and electrical codes. Can I do residential electrical work without being certified? I heard that I only need to be certified if I work for a contractor. The certification seems to require 3-4 years apprenticeship and 8000 hours of training. Can anyone shed some light on this?
I am quite sure you will find that in California, USA, just like most other states, you need to have a license to do electrical work for hire. Fixing minor things like replacing a light fixture or a broken switch does not fall into this category, however, adding circuits, doing anything in a panel, or upgrading services certainly does. You would never be able to acquire any type of liability insurance as a contractor to do any kind of electrical work without a license, nor would you be able to pull a permit for a homeowner.
The three stages of progression to become licensed are first, apprentice, then test for a journeyman's licence, then finally a Master. Only a master can pull permits or supervise the training of the lower two classes. This process can take years.
I would caution you sternly, basic knowledge of codes and theory is not a substitute for practical knowledge/experience and proper guidance from a seasoned professional.
Working in the trade as a unlicensed contractor could cause you a lot of grief and possible legal problems as well. I would suggest contacting your Secretary of State's department or website for licensing requirements.
While I agree with Shirlock, and I personally call an electrician for most things, running a new circuit is fine as long as you pull a permit and do it properly.
To answer the actual question, in most localities, you are allowed to pull an electrical permit on your OWN residence, "own" defined as the primary residence that you occupy and you have filed a homestead exemption for with your property tax appraisal district. You are NOT allowed to pull a permit for another person's property or work on that property except with a helper's card under the supervision of a journeyman or master.
I would happily become a licensed electrician, but the requirements for becoming a journeyman are 4,000 hours as a helper (that's 2 years of labor at generally minimum wage), and to become a master takes an additional four years as a journeyman... if you're employed for 40 hours a week on an actual job, which is not typically the case. If the requirements were a little lower, I could see doing it, but I already have a four year degree. Lack of ability to get licensed without spending six years at it are, in my opinion, one of the reasons that so much electrical work is done unpermitted and not to code.
You can do your own home and shed light legally, if you pay the fees to obtain a permit and schedule an inspection.
If you work for a contractor that is a licensed/certified Master electrician and they supervise you, you can do electrical work as an employee without "certification".
It gets more complicated and dangerous quickly when you're doing Multi-Wire Branch Circuit (MWBC), sharing a neutral between the black and red; or black, red and blue; or brown, orange, and yellow. Stuff may blow up when you plug it in without popping a circuit breaker. Always check voltages with a DMM/VOM --and even then they will vary depending on the load on each circuit. As a EE, and not a tested, experienced electrician it may not be intuitively obvious that you should pigtail.
Use a GFCI checker to make sure you've wired the neutral (white), the hot (black or red), and ground (green) to the right 120 VAC receptacle terminals.
You'd think introducing open circuits, ground faults and short circuits into your wiring would be impossible with just a little bit of mindfulness, but I've had to go back and completely redo dozens of receptacles that were made-up by poorly supervised inexperienced temp labor, wondering the whole time how anyone could be so stupid as to F up something this simple.
But then I built exploders for Navy torpedos and worked on B-2s, F-15Es, F-16C/Ds, and F-35s plus all kinds of fire and security alarms, so perhaps I have a different perspective than Harry Homeowner or the high school dropout working for $9.29 an hour so they can buy a couple 40oz Malt Liquors on the way home.
It may end up costing you three times as much for choosing the wrong material, damaging material using improper installation methods, and rework from using unskilled labor compared to a licensed electrician that does this work day in and day out with a stocked service truck.
As an unlicensed individual, legally you can't charge for electrician work because you won't be able to pull a permit or schedule an inspection. City and county AHJs require you be licensed in your state. If they don't know you, they'll log in and check your license as part of the permitting quality review.
If you help out friends and family with a project that you're not paid for you're probably not going to get charged with a Class 1 Misdemeanor for unlicensed work if their house burns down or their schnauzer electrocutes itself peeing on a plain receptacle that should've been a protected combo AFCI/GFCI. Still, the insurance company may not pay for damages and your friend/family is SOL because there's no record of a permit or inspection.
When it comes time to sell the house the inspector may note non-compliance and require an electrician pull a permit, fix the problem, and be there for an inspection.
Better safe than sorry. If your hands-on work hasn't provided you with the knowledge and experience required for the particular task at hand, and there's no YouTube videos on the internet that seem legit, don't risk it. Hire a real electrician.
It depends on the state or city in which you live. In Indiana you are not required to have a license in most counties but you must prove experience and be insured. Being an EE doesn't qualify you to do the work. We had an EE burn up a control panel he was working on and it took the electrician 4 days to rewire the whole panel. There is no real argument here: the answer is with the state law and code or your county code and what they require. NEC doesn't care what you think, only that you abide by their rules and codes. By the way, a county can demand stricter electrical codes then the NEC, they just can't allow less then the NEC requires.
In St. Louis we can take a test to get certified. The test is pretty easy (I mean electricians need to pass this) and costs about $50. Not sure if this sort of scenario is available in your area but if I were you I would get some credentials so you can sign off on home inspections and make more $$.
Perhaps you should try to get a job in a union shop as an apprentice. You will get hands on experience and good pay. I decided on this route and after a few years I took the test and received my RW "Residential Wiremen" card. I later landed a job as a maintenance electrician for the Boeing Co., which didn't require a JW card. The EE there was responsible for all work preformed by non licensed electricians.
If you want to work for yourself though, you need a license. There are other options out there though if you don't want to go through that process.
My son works commissioning HVAC units and installing access controls and makes more money than most electricians. He is not required to have a license and loves his job. Some other electricians I know that are "not licensed" are making much more money calibrating probes for the sanitation district than they did doing electrical work and they are not breaking their backs any more.
I guess my advice is to be flexible and consider other possibilities.
The qualifications have been stated and they are simple and straight forward. Carry an apprentice license for 8000 hours, pass the Journeyman test and hold that license for another 4000 hours and then pass the master license. Also the rule of a homeowner doing work on their home. I just ran into this last week where a homeowner pulled a permit claiming to be the homeowner ( house not paid for yet so not the owner) and that it was homesteaded. Real quick the inspectors realized the individual had no clue to what they were doing thus I was called in ( by the individual ) to do the job.
So let me ask, since I would like to add electrical engineer to my tool belt, and I am a Master Electrician, do you think they should reduce the requirements to 1 year for me to get my Bachelor in Electrical Engineering? I hope you answer no because that would be absurd. It is equally absurd to expect the qualifications for electrical licensing be reduced or ignored just because one has a degree in a electrical engineering. To think so shows the lack of experience in the field. I have on many occasions had to seat down with electrical engineers and help them understand that what looks good on paper dose not always work in the field. It is that hands on experience that is needed to truly understand the trade and that can not be obtained in the classroom. Find a company who needs an electrical engineer and who would let you get hands on experience along the way thus you get paid well and can get a better understanding as to what the electrician deal with on a day to day basis. Yet that is not all because experience in one or two aspects of electrical does not tell the whole story. It takes years and working in many areas of the electrical field to get a real taste of the work. Try it out and have fun.