I use this simple plug device to detect any ground/neutral problems in outlets and if they're properly installed.
What can I use on open wires in an electrical receptacle to emulate the same test?
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You can use the tester below. If you touch one probe to the hot and the other to neutral or ground and the bulb should light.
If hot-to-ground lights but not hot-to-neutral the neutral is open. Vice versa for open ground. If you get nothing lighting either both neutral and ground are open or there's no power.
If hot-to-neutral and neutral-to-ground light, hot and neutral are reversed.
If neutral-to-ground and ground-to-hot light, but hot-to-neutral doesn't light, hot and ground are reversed.
It's a little complicated. Since there's no outlet hooked up you should probably just test to make sure the black-to-white and black-to-green light the light, if not there's a problem further down the line.
I mostly use this kind of tester to see which wires are hot in old work with cloth covered wires that you can't tell which color is which anymore.
It's also a handy tool to have to test all the wires in a box to make sure there's no power in any of them before you start touching them with your hands.