Freezing water can generate pressures scientists have only recently been able to experimentally verify. For more practical examples:
So exactly how much force is the ice capable of exerting? Well, people have been trying to work this out for a long time. In 1784 and 1785, one Major Edward Williams took advantage of the weather in Quebec and repeatedly tried and failed to find a method of containing ice. Williams at first tried to seal water inside of artillery shells, the cast iron plugs of which were launched 475 feet at an astonishing 20 feet per second when the pressure become too great. Unperturbed, Williams then took to anchoring the plugs in place using hooks, only for the shells to split in two.
In another experiment, an attempt was made to fill cannons made of one inch thick cast iron with water only for them too to split when it was frozen. Academics in Florence later tried to fill a ball made of one inch thick brass with water only for that too to crack when it was frozen. They later worked out that the force required to do so clocked in at around 27,720 pounds.
For a more exact answer, you need to once again go back the the water phase diagram, which shows that ice will turn into Ice II when the pressure reaches 300 Mega Pascals, which is exactly, 43,511.31 pounds of force per square inch. In other words, that's the amount of pressure a container would need to be able to survive to stop water turning into regular ice, instead causing it to turn into Ice II.
The answer to a freeze resistant plumbing system is actually the opposite: make the pipes thin and ductile enough that they expand with the pipe. New, well manufacturered copper can often freeze a few times before splitting.
The problem with this is that each time the copper expands, it becomes more brittle. Metal workers know that as you stretch, compress, or otherwise work copper and most other metals they develop internal stresses which cause them to be more brittle. The process of annealing can reduce or eliminate these stresses, restoring the metal's ductility.
So a copper pipe can often withstand a few freeze/thaw cycles. The joints are much less forgiving, though, and a lot of frozen pipe failures occur at or near joints where stresses cannot as easily distribute.
Thus the short answer to your question is that there is no practical size of pipe that will withstand frozen water.
There are a multitude of methods to handle this, though, the most common is the freezeproof faucet or hydrant.