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I am replacing some framing and sheet rock that has been contaminated by mice. The basement has cinder block walls that come up about half way for some reason. The house was built in the 1950s.

In some of the basement the top of the wall is sealed with cement, but in this case the cement has been removed in order to install the studs and sheet rock.

wall with cinder block

What should be done to this open block wall before replacing the studs and sheet rock?

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That is odd. If that's how the mice got in then you want to fill the blocks with gravel & then smooth that over with concrete or cement. If the mice didn't enter there then "Big Gap" spray can foam would be the insulation choice & best treatment.

If you'd like to use the block voids to secure the sill of the stud wall(s) then you can screw cleats to the sill plate bottom. The cleats would be set into your concrete, cement or foam flush to the top of the blocks & the sill would be screwed to them later.

Preferably, the cleats would just be PT2x2 chunks that only snug against the basement side of the block void to hold the sill against the wall or sill with spacer blocks behind & at the wall...if the plan is to align the sill & studs to the face of the blocks & just run drywall over the blocks for a fully flat wall.

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