I have a 4" x 6"-16' treated wooden beam. I am trying to determine which way the beam should be placed to provide the most strength for the decking.

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    Beams are usually installed crown up. so the high piont is in the center and each end is lower. on a 16' run with a 6" beam you will need additional supports. – Ed Beal Jan 15 '16 at 22:45

Always for the most strength, place the beam so the 4" faces are the top and bottom and the 6" dimension is the height.

As a mention I hope you are planning on adding posts or some means of support in the center. A 16' beam supported by the ends only will not hold up a deck.

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