The floor should be mostly cured (enough to live on) in the first 5-7 days, but it can take up to a month for the odors to be completely gone, and for the finish to reach its maximum hardness.
For the first few days, "airing out" the house should be a priority. This is difficult during the winter months, but keeping air moving is important. Make sure you keep a window at least part way open in every room, and setting up fans will help keep the air moving. This can get expensive while keeping the temperature up.
Alternatively, if you aren't living in the house, you can concentrate on keeping the temperature up and humidity low, with only minimal air exchange. Two open windows on opposite sides of the living area should be fine. The fumes are unpleasant, but aren't flammable. After letting the finish cure, then you can focus on evacuating the air. Airing out the house at this point for 1 or 2 days should remove enough of the fumes to be safe, but it's a good idea to keep your house at negative pressure for a few weeks, especially if you have sensitive pets/children/seniors.
By negative pressure, I mean making sure there is active removal of air from the house. A couple of fans in upstairs windows will do nicely, or at one end of the house if single-level. This is more important than bringing fresh air in. If your home is brand new, you may need to set up a fan and window to source fresh air, but older homes will generally leak enough to make up the difference fine. You should also leave all your doors open, letting the air circulate.
Depending on where you are in the process of refinishing, you may want to look into some of the new water-based polyurethane options. They have advanced quite a lot in the last few years, and some are starting to rival oil-based for durability, with a fraction of the fumes. This would require more research on your part, but if you are concerned with the smell, it may be an option.