I am currently trying to install a light fixture and I'm really confused, I've never seen wiring like this before and I'm not sure what goes where. There are 6 wires in total, 3 black and 3 white. 2 of the blacks and one of the whites are wrapped in tape, 2 of the whites are capped off together and one if the blacks is capped off alone. How do I tell the difference between them and which is the ground?
The straight answer is the two whites together go to the white, or neutral, of the fixture. The single black goes to the black, or hot, of the fixture. Leave the other splice alone, just fold it back in the box.
None of what you describe is a ground. If there is a bare or green wire anywhere that would be your ground. Also, under some circumstances the box itself, if metal, could be a valid ground, but this depends on a few things.