I am capable of framing a "simple" 8' wide 8' tall 4" thick wall out of 2x4 lumber, then attaching plywood or drywall or OSB or any other sheet material to the frame. Making the wall wider is a trivial change. Making it significantly taller, however, seems not. Should I build multiple 'copies' of this frame and stack them, or build a single tall frame with 2x4x16' studs, or something else?
I see from your other question, that you are rehabing an industrial space. Personally, I'd use steel studs in this application. You can build them to 16 ft, no problem. You will need to install horizontal stiffeners as Mike mentions, unless you go wider that the 4 inches of wall thickness. It is very difficult to build and handle a wood framed wall of that size, but stacking is an alternative. Finding 2X4's that are not waned or bowed will be a challenge as well. 2X6's would be better, but steel would be the best.
Walls 16 feet are fine. Add blocking to stiffen walls, and adds a fire stop. Lumber over that may be special order.And may be cheaper to install metal studs. I like wood ,if stuff is mounted to walls. With metal studs make sure you have lots of blocking. to mount what ever you add to walls.