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Do a web search for LED faucet aerator and you'll see dozens of different color-changing faucet aerators (and showers), most of which are powered just from the stream of water. How do they generate the necessary power? Is there a teenie turbine and generator? Some sort of oscillating fin on a piezoelectric bar? Gnomes?

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For the LDR 530 2165TL LED Faucet Aerator they explain that it:

Runs entirely on the water stream pressure from your faucet - no batteries required

On another LED Light Water Faucet they show the impeller:

impeller

And here they explain:

There is a small dynamo with impeller inside the faucet. When you turn on the faucet, the impeller will start to move by water flowing and make the dynamo work.

The LED will change its color according to different water temperature:

A. Water temperature ≤77°F(25°C), Water color is blue

B. 77°F(25°C)<Water temperature < 104°F(40°C), Water color is green

C. Water temperature≥104°F(40°C), Water color is red

Also see: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vePD8JpGiu0

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The one I had was powered by either AAA's or stacked "coin" type cells. That, combined with the 2 inches of space lost in the sink made me ditch the whole system. I don't doubt that some are powered with a small turbine (or something like it), but some are just battery powered.

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