Can someone explain what each of these wires do? I see a single green wire,
This is a grounding pigtail that was supposed to ground the junction box itself. It should be joined to the other greens most likely.
a single blue
hot leg of a 120/208 system?
4 green wires twisted together
almost certainly earth ground
4 white wires twisted together
Neutral, most likely. Are you sure those aren't 'grey' instead of white?
4 yellow wires twisted together
only real guess would be a hot of a 277/480
and a single red wire that I can't pull out of the box.
another 120/208 hot that is traveling to another junction box.
Which one do i use as my ground, live and neutral wire?
I think this is the time you call building management and make them explain what the hell they were thinking.
With no other information, I don't think you have what you need there to wire a 120v light. You MIGHT be able to install a 277v light using green for ground, the grey bundle for neutral and yellow for live. But you should probably make mgmt do this.
277 has become quite common in large buildings for lighting. Carefully measure the voltage between yellow and grey, and between yellow and ground.
In 277/480, neutral is Grey, not white, and yellow is a hot.
Is this a large building with significant electrical utility rooms and the like?
I'm also going to guess concrete slab ceiling? That would be a common reason to run 120 and 277 in the same conduit, but then where's the 120/208 neutral? Something is off here.... I'm guessing that red wire doesn't have a junction in this box, but runs down conduit to another.
Pictures from another angle would help. (To know what is coming from what direction.) But you might just want to put the lid back on and back away slowly!