In Fairfax County Virginia, what is the minimum distance that an outlet must be from a shower in the bathroom? Does the minimum distance change if it is GFI outlet?
It must be GFCI (2009 residential codes, chapter 29):
E3902.1 Bathroom receptacles. All 125-volt, single-phase, 15- and 20-ampere receptacles installed in bathrooms shall have ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel.
VA building codes are online: http://www.ecodes.biz/ecodes_support/Free_Resources/Virginia2009/09Residential/09Residential_main.html
I can't say specifically for Fairfax County, VA (you could contact your local building department).
This website (http://www.ezdiyelectricity.com/?p=29) seems to indicate that as long as it is not in the "wet zone", basically inside the shower or tub space, it should be OK. They also say that a receptacle within 3 feet of a sink should be GFCI, it is not clear to me if that would apply to tubs/showers too (but it seems like it might be a good idea).