Fiberglass's main issue is when extremely small fibers make their way into the deep lung tissue. Long-term exposure can result in silicosis. Short-term exposure is extremely unlikely to result in anything other than short-term irritation of the throat, nasal passages, in some cases nose bleeds, and a cough. Coughing will clean the lungs of much of the fibers. The extremely small fibers that make it to deep lung tissue will be slowly removed from the lungs via lung fluids then Microphages (supposedly). Usually in the case of long-term exposure, chronic conditions will not appear for at least around 20 years later. It is debated whether inhaling Fiberglass is carcinogenic but we know that some industrial Fiberglass can be due to the binders used. They say that consumer household fiberglass insulation is not carcinogenic, but assuming it is, it would be estimated at about 4 - 7% of what asbestos is. So it's much better than asbestos in those terms, that's even if it is carcinogenic at all. Many people inhaled a lot of asbestos in their life and never even got any chronic illness, that being said obviously many also have. Acute Fiberglass exposure extremely likely will never lead to any long-term conditions what-so-ever. Long-term exposure could lead to silicosis/fiberosis over a period of ~20+ years due to scarring of lung tissue. Cancer is extremely unlikely in all cases unless you are working with specific industrial insulations, and even then, short-term exposure likely isn't much of a risk factor. If your house is contaminated, it's hell to fix (personal experience) but it needs to be done. Fix source of contamination first, then section by section hepa vacuum and wipe down with damp cloths, use an led light to inspect surfaces.
In your case, you should be perfectly fine. Might cough a little. Take a cold shower and if you were wearing everyday clothes then I would wash them a few times then run a rinse cycle to clean it out of machine. More likely you're coughing from dust and not specifically just fibreglass. A lot of the stuff online is ridiculous so don't pay much attention. There's articles about how the resins on Fiberglass will cause brain cancer blah blahh, fact is short term exposure and occasional DIY shouldn't ever cause any problems, always wear proper protection. Now you know.
I was on a fiberglass dust contaminated house for 4 months. I had some minor issues but they've all cleared up after a number of weeks. My chance of problems down the road? Probably slim to none. Even red meat can cause cancer, don't lose sleep over an hour in the attic