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What if my incoming source starts at the outlet I want to split (always on for the dishwasher, switched for the garbage disposal) and not in the switch/outlet combo? How would I wire that?

I read this and looked at the diagram on your site:

If you want to have power always on to a box that is downstream of a switch, you'll need to use 3-conductor cable between the switch and split the hot side of the outlet.

At the outlet, break off the tab on the hot side only between the top and bottom outlet. Wire the red conductor to one of the hot screws, the black conductor to the other one, and then the white to the other side of the outlet.

At the switch/outlet, you'll need to wire the incoming black wire to one of the hot screws, and the outgoing black wire (to the 3 condutor cable) to the other hot screw. The outgoing red wire (the one controlled by the switch) goes on the neutral side of the switch, and the incoming white wire gets wire-nutted together to the neutral side of the outlet along with the outgoing white wire (from the 3 conductor cable)

Be sure to ground all outlets and switches as well.

I think its image #6?

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That description is OK, but you really only need to run 2-wire with ground romex up to the switch, not 3-wire. Split the hot side of the outlet as described. Use a wire nut to pigtail a short piece of wire from your source hot to the terminal of the receptacle that you want "always on" and also connect to the new black wire from the romex running to your switch. Connect the other end of your new black wire to one terminal of your new switch.

Remember, the switch just "makes" or "breaks" the hot.

Connect the new white wire from the romex to the other side of the switch. Permanently mark the white wire at the switch box with red or black permanent marker to identify it as a "switched hot". Connect the other end of the white wire from the romex to the hot terminal of the receptacle that you want switched (for the disposer). Permanently mark the white wire at the receptacle with red or black permanent marker to identify it as a "switched hot". Connect the source neutral to the receptacle and ground everything.

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