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I'm not at all a professional in this domain, but I'll try to explain the problem as briefly as possible.

I'm trying to bring internet to the cottage. The only way that the internet provider offers me is through a 4G usb internet stick. However, the problem is that the network signal is very bad in the cottage itself, and therefore the internet connection is also very poor. But at 350 meters uphill the signal is excellent (as is the internet connection).

In general, what devices do I need (on the hill) to connect the usb internet stick and connect to the medium? And which medium would be the best to transmit the data with minimal loss of flow to the cottage? What devices are needed in the cottage itself to receive internet and send wifi internet?

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  • Can you describe if there is any kind of infrastructure uphill? My first thought would be a point-to-point wireless bridge. They are very affordable, and require minimal installation. As long as you have power and line-of-sight to the cottage, they should work very well.
    – FrK
    Nov 12, 2023 at 15:15
  • @FrK There is no infrastructure. My plan is to bring electricity and net cable to the place on the hill where the devices will be located. Also, the place is in the forest, so the line of sight to the cottage is poor. So probably the transmission medium should be some kind of cable, probably optical. Essentially, the biggest problem for me is whether there is a device into which the stick would be plugged and which would be connected to the cable.
    – Xeron
    Nov 12, 2023 at 15:33
  • Small home routers exist that support plugging in a USB cell modem for the upstream internet connection ("WAN port"), just like they exist with upstream DSL, MoCA (cable), or generic wired Ethernet ports. You could then feed the network back to the main location using one of the "LAN" ports (likely after converting to fiber optic as 350m is far beyond the limits of ordinary wired ethernet).
    – nobody
    Nov 12, 2023 at 15:59
  • This answer has links to a couple of other answers, all somewhat related. You either run power up there or put solar up there for power, and run a point-to point wireless link (which might mean cutting some trees, you don't mention the vegetation uphill) or fiber optic to make the connection. diy.stackexchange.com/a/280841/18078
    – Ecnerwal
    Nov 12, 2023 at 16:27
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    In some cases it's going to cost less to put up a pole/mast at the house to get the elevation on the antenna that your terrain is providing over the 350m, rather than building a 350m link.
    – Ecnerwal
    Nov 12, 2023 at 17:07

1 Answer 1

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"USB internet stick" doesn't sound like much. That sounds like a device designed to connect to a single computer. The starting point is to ask for an ethernet connection that I can connect to a router. That could be, depending on the ISP and other factors, a box that takes the exact same "USB internet stick" that you already have and provides ethernet output, or it could be a box that has everything (4G antenna/transceiver, ethernet connection, possibly even a full router0 all in one.

Once you have that, you now have either a single ethernet connection (connect it to a router to share with multiple computers, WiFi hotspots, etc.) or multiple ethernet connections (if they include a router as part of the "magic internet box") in which case you just pick one of those ethernet connections.

Now you have two challenges:

Power

Assuming you don't happen to have power on the hill (no, not political power on Capitol Hill...), you need to provide power to this device. Regular Power over Ethernet won't help you much, not at 350 meters, but there are some PoE extenders available that might do the job, depending on power requirements.

But if PoE won't work, then since power loss over 350 meters is huge, especially at low voltage (and at high voltage you run into other problems), that may mean setting up a small off-grid self-contained system. Typically that means:

  • Batteries (designed for a couple of years worth of daily charge/discharge cycles, capacity dependent on daily power requirements, ideally so that on a typical winter day and after a couple of years of expected use you only normally discharge to around 50%)
  • Solar Panels (designed to fully charge batteries every day based on expected usage and seasonal variations in time/intensity of sunlight)
  • Battery Charger
  • Converter (the technology will vary depending on required output AC vs. DC, voltage, etc.) to produce the necessary power for your modem/router/etc.

Network

USB only goes a few feet. More importantly, standard ethernet is designed for 100 meters, and you need to send a signal 350 meters. There are basically three methods to span a long distance:

  • Copper Wires (coax or twisted pair)

You won't get Gigabit speed, but you can certainly get connections fast enough for normal internet use. The wire (cable really) is relatively inexpensive. However, you will need to either get direct-bury cable and bury it or use conduit (and possibly bury that too, at least for portions of the run) to protect from critters and weather.

  • Fiber Optic

The cable tends to be more expensive, and putting the ends is not as trivial as with copper (but you can get long pre-assembled cables) but the same issues of bury and/or conduit apply as with copper. High speed available.

  • Wireless

Note that I did not say "WiFi". Traditional WiFi is not going to work well at 350 meters. But there are other wireless schemes available. There may be licensing issues (depending on the type/power/frequency) and equipment may be expensive. But you don't have to worry about 350 meters of cable having problems.

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    More detailed answer than the one I rattled off. The one thing I might add is that putting directional antennas (such as homebrew "cantennas"; the side-fired coffee can design may be easiest to build) can greatly strengthen a point to point WiFi connection. I've gotten a decent signal at the other end of a city block that way, through two walls and some glass, without having to change the transmitter settings to cheat on license rules.
    – keshlam
    Nov 12, 2023 at 18:08

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