Assuming you're on NEC2020 or up, yes, a GFCI is now required in a kitchen on a 250V circuit in many or all circumstances. Here's my favorite Eaton chart on the matter.
For NEC 2020, the triggering requirement is the outlet being within six feet of the edge of a sink. Do note the code says in 210.8:
'For the purposes of this section, the distance from receptacles shall
be measured as the shortest path the power supply cord connected to
the receptacle would follow without piercing a floor, wall, ceiling,
or fixed barrier.'
So you don't have to beeline the six feet. A freestanding range can be closer than 6 feet to the sink so long as the receptacle itself is further away than that. Heck, if it's close to working, you could add a splash barrier between the range and the sink to buy yourself more distance.
This might mean purchase of an expensive 50A GFCI breaker. Or if you're running a new circuit, it might mean making sure that the receptacle is six feet away from the edge of the sink.
Once you're on NEC 2023, you need the GFCI no matter what. 210.8 now says
GFCI protection shall be provided for the branch circuit or outlet
supplying the following appliances rated 150 volts or less to ground
and 60 amperes or less, single- or 3-phase: