When a door is installed, you nail (or screw) the jamb to the rough opening framing with some shims in between to keep the whole door+jamb assembly square, plumb, and properly spaced in the opening. It doesn't look like there are any shims between the jamb you show and the 2x4 it's attached to. You don't provide pictures of that but it's a safe bet that there are no shims on the other side or at the top either. So in addition to the jambs being too far apart, the other jamb is probably whacked in all sorts of wonky. Even if there are shims, it's very likely that the jamb's not set up right there either given how it looks where you're showing it.
To set this right, you should to pull the door and the jamb and reinstall the whole thing properly. You could tweak and fiddle that strike plate jamb to make it work but then you'll still likely have problems with the other side.
That's a call-back to have the door redone but given how it was done in the 1st place, I don't know that I'd trust this one to do it right the second time. But that's just me.