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We have a poured concrete basement, serving as the foundation of our home, which was built in 2008 in central Minnesota.

The basement has 3 vinyl windows, the sills of which are around 1' above grade.

We're planning our basement finishing process, and I wonder if we can convert one of these windows to a patio door or something similar, so we can walk out of the basement instead of needing to go back upstairs and then out.

There's an 18'x18' deck (with stairs) above the window I'm thinking of replacing, and preventing rain from seeping in wouldn't be a huge problem. There's around 7' of head room under the deck, specially at the end away from the house, while it's around 6' right next to the window.

Essentially, this would (hopefully) become a walk-up basement, with steps leading up to end of the deck.

Is this doable without in any way compromising the structural integrity of the foundation? Without introducing water pooling, etc?

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Yes, you can. However, doing it properly requires solid knowledge of how to transfer structural loads. The soundest practice here is to hire a structural engineer to draft plans for you to tell you exactly what you need to build to keep your house safe.

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