If I had to guess, something is not right with the wiring / voltage.
Why am I making a broad statement about "wiring / voltage"? Because I don't quite understand your different set ups and the resulting voltages.
It seems you're driving multiple 12V LED strips with 24V. This can be fine, if your wiring is set up for every strip to get 12V. I personally drive two 12V fans wired in series using a 24V power supply.
When I plug in the left section, it all works fine.
Here your wiring seems ok-ish, resulting in the correct voltage. At least it's within bounds, because 24V / 3 is 8V, which although not matching the specified 12V might still be close enough. Note that if the three strips on the left are wired in series they only get 1/3 of the voltage. Think of voltage as difference between two points: Those three LED strips connected in series split the difference between them. If you connect them in parallel each will see the full difference between the connection points.
when I also plug in the right section, everything blinks once and doesn't do anything.
The right section seems to either
- get 24V, overheat and temporarily drop out (if so, be grateful, if the LED strip still works),
- add the drop to overflow the bucket, i.e. take too much amperes, so the voltage drops (remember it might already be as low as 8V, depending on wiring of the left side)
- cause a short (if so, be grateful, if your power supply still works)
taking the rest of the circuit with it.
My guess is on the first or second option, because miraculously
When I lower the analog write value from a max of 255 to 150ish everything works fine.
150ish/255th seems to be close enough to 1/2 and 1/2 of 24V is 12V, which is the correct voltage for a single LED strip. Yes, I am aware that you're using PWM to switch on/off the full 24V, however real circuits do have continuous rise/drop of voltage and so there's the correct voltage some of the time. Alternatively, think of it flickering and going out just to come back up with the next PWM cycle. If it flickers fast enough, your eyes won't notice.
Have you perhaps wired the right LED strip so that it is connected as a single LED strip?
The power supply is 24V and 1 amp. I suspect that its not providing enough current to the LED for all the strips but I don't see how that would make sense if I am using the provided power adapter.
This totally makes sense: It's the power supply for up to 4 LED strips, not 4 LED strips (one of which getting 100% over-voltage) plus a buck converter (introducing unknown losses) that powers an Arduino. Which is why I list this as above option 2.
You could try to connect two parallel pairs of two LED strips in series. If my first guess is right, this should solve the issue. If it doesn't, it's probably option 2. Even for option 2, not over-volting the right LED strip may help to stabilize the power supply.
Alternatively, measure the voltage with a multimeter. Yes, the reading may be awkward, because you actually have drops/rises but most multimeter will read some value that is close to the average. No fancy oscilloscope needed, especially because a PWM of 255 is always on.