Another answer covers receptacle type (14-30), wire/cable type, conduit, etc. However, I believe the answer to Which receptacle? is None.
Most ovens/ranges/etc., and in fact many other essentially permanently installed appliances such as dishwashers, disposals, HVAC equipment (except seasonal window air conditioners), water heaters, EVSE (a.k.a., "car chargers"), etc. can be hard-wired. The primary advantage of hardwiring an appliance are is that you remove a point of failure - no plug to get loose, no cheap receptacle to go bad. But interestingly enough, at least in an online search I am having trouble finding a proper 4-wire 10 AWG (for 30A) ready-to-use whip. Which means either I am looking in the wrong place (likely) or installers build their own (not so likely - lengths are pretty standard, typically in the 4 to 6 foot range, and trusting a regular installer (non-electrician) to get all the little details right is not a good idea). Actually, I have seen some appliances which come with a whip preinstalled, but typically on things such as wall ovens where hardwired installation is required rather than optional. I am pretty sure (but the experts can speak up if I'm wrong) that MC cable works for this - cut to length, use the right connectors/clamps to attach to the oven junction box and the wall junction box.
But, I hear you say, what about if I need to actually disconnect the oven for some reason? Guess what, removing one cover plate and 4 screw terminals will be the easy part. The harder part will be properly disconnecting and reconnecting your gas line! For anything else - e.g., move the oven away from the wall for in-place repairs or cleaning or painting the wall or whatever, a 4 or 6 foot whip permanently attached will work just fine.