TLDR: For large appliances there is a short list of specific appliances that need 240V. So you simply identify them by name.
EV? Where did that requirement come from?
A dedicated EV charge circuit is not required in the NEC electrical code. It may be required in local building codes.
What NEC definitely does say, is that any EV charging circuit must be dedicated. That means it can't have ANYTHING else on it.
The simple thing to do
Your best bet is simply run 12/2 Romex from the panel to a junction box in a non-idiotic location for an EV wall unit. Cap off the wires and put a blank cover there. Use a label maker to write "EV Charging" (don't call it a "charger" lol).
This will allow charging at 100+ miles per 10 hours, which will satisfy most needs.
Putting a receptacle there is sheer madness. Most 240V EVSEs (charge gateways) that are wall-mounted don't and shouldn't use a receptacle - it creates an unnecessary requirement for the circuit to be GFCI Protected with a $100+ breaker, which is foolhardy since EVSEs already contain a smart GFCI, that's literally their whole purpose (mostly). You don't need a GFCI breaker on a GFCI receptacle!
No receptacle should be installed because one of five things will happen:
- absolutely nothing.
- the next person will install a wall unit EVSE and hardwire it.
- the next person will install a NEMA 6-20 receptacle for the maximum speed of the circuit, 240V/20A, and also a $120 GFCI breaker at their expense, and plug in a travel or wall EVSE. Dumb, but not your problem.
- the next person will install a NEMA 5-20 GFCI receptacle for 120V/"20A" level 1+ charging.
- the next person will install a NEMA 5-15 (normal) 120V GFCI receptacle for level 1 charging.
All of those are allowed on a 20A breaker, so you can just install any random $13 20A 2-pole breaker that matches your panel brand, and declare victory. If they wire the outlet 120V they can just move the white wire to neutral. You must label the white wire with tape to indicate use as a hot wire.
The municipality may push back
"need a receptacle". No, you don't. The requirement is moronic. You should absolutely fight city hall on this one. You shouldn¡t fit a receptacle - that should be done by the person installing the EV charge equipment to suit THEIR needs, which I covered in the previous list. It is absolutely wrong to select a socket before those needs are known.
"No GFCI breaker" again premature, as 3 of the 4 cases above don't need a GFCI breaker so the $120+ is utter waste.
"EV circuit needs to be 50A" that's poppycock. 50A is gross overkill.
Honestly if they are fixated on high-power charging, the best thing to do is run empty conduit typically 3/4" of ENT "smurf tube", PVC or ideally EMT. That will allow the EV buyer to install any wire they want. (though it's a kindness to the puller to use non-flex conduit as much as practicable).
This question also rises up when i try to classify the washer and dryer in the laundry room. The washing machine can run on 120V receptacle, but the dryer needs to run on 240V receptacle.
The 240V receptacle is only used for the dryer, so it is correctly labeled "dryer". The 120V circuit is labeled "laundry".
The garage general-use circuit is "Garage". The EV circuit is labeled "EV" or whatever you put when you labeled the blank junction box cover.