My wife and I were using the oven on our GE JS645SL5SS electric range. The oven was behaving normally while baking at 350F, and we weren't doing anything out of the ordinary with it. When my wife opened the door after baking something, we heard a loud pop and noticed that the oven tripped a 50A breaker. After resetting the breaker, the oven failed to turn on at all.
After checking the power supply to make sure the outlet still had power, I opened the control panel. Here's a picture of the very badly burned circuit board:
Since that's obviously the issue, I'll go ahead and order a replacement, but I'm not sure what my next steps should be after I replace it with the new one. Specifically, I don't know what caused the current to surge in the first place when the breaker tripped. I would rather not lose a second circuit board if the issue is still present. Is there anything I should test, in particular, to figure out what caused the issue? After reading a couple other posts on this forum, I checked the panel where the 240V power enters the oven, and that looked fine. If I had to take a wild guess, I'd say that water or cooking liquid leaked into the panel from the stovetop and shorted something, but I didn't notice anything obvious in that regard after opening the panel, and it doesn't explain why it happened when my wife opened the oven door.
Second, does the burned circuit board indicate that I need to get a new breaker lower than 50A? I thought the point of the breaker was to trip before something like this could happen?
For reference, here's two diagrams of the circuit that came with my oven:
Thanks for all the answers! I took a closer look at some of the things mentioned in the answers and comments and noticed that there was a particularly badly burned trace in the top circuit board. Here's a closer picture:
It looks like the middle of that trace melted, so I'm guessing that took the brunt of the current spike if the surge was able to melt it from the middle outwards? It looks like that trace comes out of the relay labeled K906 in the schematics. I believe it's the trace between the NO pin and the J426-3 pin on the second schematic I posted. It looks like that powers the oven light, which comes on automatically when the oven door is opened. I'm not sure why or how the light bulb could cause this spike, though.
I saw the the heating element/oven coil was also mentioned. This is what it looks like, but I'm not sure what I'd be looking for in it specifically: