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I live in Ontario and follow the CEC and guidelines. I did take out a permit and doing all the electrical wiring my self. I am wondering how I can put a 60 amp receptacle outside. I can find plenty of 50 amps outdoor boxes on Amazon. Also, I cannot find any wire for 60 amp - 4/3 awg wire. Like you can find for 30 amps - 10/3 and 40 amps - 8/3. So do I need to buy these 4 gauge wire separately(black/red/white/neutral) and use a conduit?

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    Most EV chargers do not really need that much, 20 or 30 amps at 240v will make most people happy. Most places require outside/garage receptacles to be GFCI protected, at that size it is expensive/hard to find. A hardwired charger to the panel bypasses this for now.
    – crip659
    Jan 21, 2023 at 22:56
  • Just how "future" is this? Empty conduit is a really good option if you don't actually know what you are putting out there. You can pull suitable wires when you actually know, so long as you don't make the empty conduit too small. 1-1/4" conduit will fit 2-2-2-4 (or anything smalle.r)
    – Ecnerwal
    Jan 22, 2023 at 0:24

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Save the headache of the extra 10A you probably won't really need and use a bog-standard RV pedestal at 50A 240V (and you can have some handy 20A 120V receptacles practically for free in the usual pedestal)

As for cable to support 60A, use 2-2-2-4 Aluminum mobile home feeder, which is good for 90A and very affordable, much less costly than 4 AWG copper. Use an outdoor-rated subpanel on the post connected by conduit to the charger if the charger is fussy about "copper only" (which is an asinine restriction in that amperage range) so you'll only need very short copper from the sub-panel to the charger.

If you are buying 4 AWG or larger Wire (one conductor in jacket) to put in conduit, rather than multi-wire cable, 4 AWG is the magical point where you just buy enough black to do them all, and tape the ends. Can't do that with 6 AWG or smaller (and I think USA/Canada agree, because colored insulation is uncommon on larger conductors)

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Unfortunately in the EV community, there's a sea of misinformation out there, largely due to misunderstanding of just how advanced EV tech is, and also due to people grossly overestimating their power needs.

In fact, this is such an epidemic that it goes hand-in-hand with people overloading their services and potentially burning their house down. Doing a Load Calculation the proper way is very important.

You don't need 60A. Really.

There's an introductory video that I link to novice EVers a couple of times a day, that has a realistic view on EV charging. 60A is "absolutely bonkers" for just about everyone. There's a person on Youtube who put over 100,000 miles on a Tesla Model S in 3 years, and their charging circuit is 40A I believe.

I'll let Alec take it away. Here. Feel free to rewind and watch more of it if you want more of a primer on home EV charging. Seriously - you can git-r-dun with a 20A circuit.

Alec has the option to go 50A but doesn't bother, and stays with a 30A actual (37.5A breaker) Siemens Versicharge unit gotten cheap at CostCo.

That elusive 60a receptacle

I live in Ontario and follow the CEC and guidelines. I did take out a permit and doing all the electrical wiring my self. I am wondering how I can put a 60 amp receptacle outside.

You can't. There is no such thing as a (viable) 60A receptacle. Highest you can go is 50A and even that is "absolutely bonkers".

But if you have an edge case and you need 60A-circuit charging... then you hard-wire the EVSE. Hard-wiring means there is not a plug and socket at all, and it's a permanent installation. A common pushback is "I want to be able to easily exchange the EVSE if it fails". But since you're DIYing it, that logic doesn't really hold up. It'll take you longer to install your specialty 60A plug onto the cable than it would to hardwire the thing.

Also, I cannot find any wire for 60 amp - 4/3 awg wire.

Because the consumer market is not geared to selling them. This is a procurement problem. You need better shops! Better lumberyards (by which I mean local family-owned lumberyards not big-box stores) and proper electrical supply houses will have many options. The key is the temperature and metal of the wires.

Wires have a thermal rating. NM and NMWU are limited to 60°C thermal. NMD90 and any of the wire types used in conduit pipe has a 75°C thermal rating. Howwever NMD90 might not be allowed outdoors.

The wire is also limited by the thermal rating of the terminals on the socket, disconnect, splice coupler or EVSE. If the terminals are 60°C, that's that - 75°C wire is wasted.

  • 60°C copper 6 AWG wire is only allowed 55A - not enough.
  • 60°C copper 4 AWG wire is allowed 70A.
  • 75°C+ copper 6 AWG wire is allowed 65A.
  • 75°C+ aluminum 4 AWG wire is allowed 65A.

Aluminum wire can/should only be used on terminals listed for aluminum.

A subpanel, though.

As Ecnerwal discusses, you might be selecting cheaper 76°C or aluminum wire, except the EVSE's terminals are not rated for that, and you need a cheap way to make 3 wire splices. Polaris connectors are expensive. Much cheaper is a subpanel. The subpanel will also help if you get a second EV and want to use Power Sharing to have the two EVs dynamically share a single current allocation. This is a standard feature in all Tesla Wall Connectors and is quickly gaining ground with other EVSEs.

You don't need to run neutral to a subpanel that powers ONLY EVSEs, compressors, welders and heaters. However if you do run neutral, you can install 120V circuits in that panel.

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As noted in another answer, one good solution is a 50A RV panel, which is a subpanel so it can (and normally) does provide a 120V receptacle as well (so you can plug in tools or whatever).

But if you only ever want to use this for EV charging, then:

  • Hardwire rather than receptacle. If it is really "future" then run the wires to a big metal box and connect the EVSE when you are ready.
  • You probably don't need 60A (48A actual) but could do fine with 20A (16A), 30A (24A) or 40A (32A), all of which use smaller (and therefore cheaper) wire.
  • Subject to local restrictions (in my county you can't use aluminum for a branch circuit (receptacle or hardwired) but you can for a subpanel), using aluminum wire makes a lot of sense. Just keep in mind that while most breakers are fine with aluminum wires, many EVSEs (hardwire) and receptacles are not.
  • If you don't use a subpanel then all you need are two hots and a ground, no neutral.
  • I recommend conduit, particularly if you have to run the wires underground, as conduit does not have to be placed as deep as cable. If you run conduit, I would seriously consider running a size larger than you currently need and using smaller wires for now. Then you can upgrade relatively easily in the future if you actually need more power. For example, 1/2" conduit would be enough for 3 x 10 AWG, but if you go to 3/4" conduit you could bump up a size or two without a problem.

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