There's a blockage in your sewer pipes. You mentioned waiting "until maintenance comes to check ..." which suggests you may not own the building. That's good news for you -- call again and tell them there seems to be sewage backing up into your room and that they'd better get a plumber immediately.
A plugged sewer vent pipe can also cause weird problems with toilets, but that more often manifests as a toilet that "burps" air bubbles and causes lots of splashing, or causes the water to be vacuumed out of the bowl. Since you have water that rises and stays high it sounds more like a blockage in the drain line downstream from your toilet. The rising water is the waste water sent down a drain or toilet elsewhere in the building.
There are a number of tools a person could use to clear such a blockage. A drain snake or auger is a simple but effective option. It's just a a wire coil -- a long spring -- which one feeds into the drain with hopes that it'll either dislodge the blockage and send it floating away, or else grab the blockage and allow it to be pulled out.
Snakes are offered in multiple diameters and lengths. A larger diameter snake is used when the pipe is larger - if the snake diameter is too small, it'll be prone to tangling itself in the pipe rather than feeding through. A toilet-sized pipe will need a snake that's perhaps 5/8" or larger diameter. If the blockage were in the toilet itself then a short snake would do, and that's a tool that's reasonable to own.
In your case though, where the blockage is somewhere further down the pipe, a longer snake will likely be needed. These are often packaged on a cart. This is the sort of tool a homeowner would usually rent rather than buy -- or, probably even more often, hire a plumber to do the job.