When wiring a 240V GFCI breaker to an NEMA 6-50 receptacle, does one leave the neutral terminal on the breaker open and run the ground wire from the receptacle to the panel ground bus-bar? Does the ground need to be #6 if the hots are #6, or can it be smaller?

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The GFCI breaker will have a neutral pigtail, or PON. It needs that to power the breaker's internal electronics, but it also carries load neutral on a 120/240V circuit.

If you have a 240V-only circuit, then you have no neutral and you connect the nonexistent neutral to nothing. The 2 hots wires attach to the GFCI hots.

For a circuit of up to 60A, ground can be #10.
For a 61-100A circuit, ground must be #8.

If you are using 6 AWG copper wire or type other than NM or UF, that is 65A wire and needs a #8 ground.

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