You won't be able to fit a GFCI receptacle in that box. Regular receptacles barely fit, with a trick cover plate. Also note, GFCI receptacles are not allowed on the ceiling.
Option 1, what Jack says: remove octagon box and replace with 2-gang box. You need a 2-gang because your hole is already too big for a 1-gang. Put another receptacle in the other gang.
Option 2, learn a marvelous thing about GFCI protection. It's not a receptacle at all, it is a zone of protection applied to parts of a circuit. That thing you know about is a "combo device" containing a GFCI device and a receptacle. They also make GFCI+switch, GFCI as switch, GFCI+breaker or standalone GFCI. All of these devices can protect additional parts of the circuit. That is the ONLY legitimate use of the "Load" terminals - though many people blindly use "Load" because they need a place to attach 2 more wires. (Actually the LINE screws can handle 2 wires each - read the instructions!)
So, you can figure out where power comes from to reach this spot, and fit a GFCI device there. Either at a prior outlet, or a prior switch, or the breaker. Now this outlet is GFCI protected. Note it must be labeled "GFCI Protected" per instructions 8(C), which you must follow due to NEC 110.3.