People often toss out the word "conduit" without really saying what they are doing with the conduit.
Conduit being fully run, end-to-end as a wiring method
Then you must follow all the conduit rules. The conduit must begin and end in a junction box. Thermal derate (no more than four 15-20A circuits in a pipe) must be respected. Physical fill rules must be respected, which almost precludes the use of UF cable, as it is very wide for its size, and thus requires a huge conduit (e.g. 2" for #6 conduit).
For a single cable, a shortcut is that the minimum pipe size ID is 138% of the maximum cable width.
The conduit must be fully built, glued, filled and tamped before any wires are PULLED into it. That means the conduit must be built to be pullable - with broad sweeps at inaccessible curves, and "pulling points" where feasible.
Cable in conduit is generally considered a nightmare, and very difficult to pull.
However this is not the same thing as
A stick of random pipe merely as a damage shield in one location
Sometimes when you are running NM, UF or SE cable, you have a short distance where the cable needs an additional bit of protection from physical damage. E.G. because you cannot run inside a wall, must run on the surface of the wall, such as coming down the wall on a poured concrete basement wall.
You can use any bit of random metal for this protection (that is tough enough), including pipe, including pipe that is made to be conduit.
However, at that point you are not using it as "the conduit wiring method", you are using it only as a "random piece of metal" to provide additional damage protection.
In this case, the "conduit as a wiring method" rules do not apply. Pipe fill is not a concern - if it fits, it ships. You can slide the pipe over the cable as you go. The cable can exit the pipe without a junction box. It doesn't need to be electrical conduit types specifically - heck, it doesn't even need to be pipe.
It does need to meet certain standards for physical protection, and cheapo PVC pipe or conduit typically doesn't - it's too easily broken.
Since copper pipe is expensive and some PVC is insufficient, EMT metal tubing is often used.
And if you want to extend the EMT into one junction box and put a receptacle there, that is fine.