The lightbulb pictured below is in a ceiling lamp fixture in the United States and is probably original to the house, meaning approximately 1985 vintage.
There is no lettering or labeling I can see on the bulb, just the faint bossing on the lamp itself ("Nadair"?) to identify it.
The glass is fairly small, no more than a few inches long, much less than an inch wide. There is no obvious direction to tug or twist it that releases it, although I've been reluctant to pull hard for fear of breaking it in my hand. (On that note, this fixture is old and it took quite a bit of brute force to pry the one extendable claw out to release the cover.)
The white plastic pieces seem to be part of the fixture itself.
What is this thing, and what is the trick to removing it?
It has now been removed, and is the subject of the third image and the new question, "Did I break this thing?" But I can get it to a hardware store, now, which is more than half the battle.