If I have driven a wood screw in and out of a hole more than several times, especially with shorter screws, chances are the hole will become too wide for the screw to form a tight grip, instead it will just spin when you reach the depth maximum. Is there anything I can put into the hole, like a super strong epoxy, that will revitalize the hole so that I can achieve a firm grip again, assuming a screw/hole relocation is not an option?
Clean the hole. Put in some glue. Stuff the hole with toothpicks (possibly dipped first in glue - depends on how big the hole is and how much glue oozes out as you stuff in the toothpicks). Cut off the ends sticking out of the hole. Let dry.
It is also a good idea to use longer screws if you can. But match the head of the existing screws, particularly if you are screwing in a lock or hinges or something else where the profile of the screw head matters.
These are good for any sort of hole that wont hold a screw. They will work well in your stripped wooden hole. I got some saggy interior doors unsaggy by fortifying the holes for the hinge screws with some of these.
You tap them into the hole with a hammer.