There's no purpose built market solution for what you're after. I've installed a commercial closer to a residential storm door for this reason, Hager 5300 are pretty reasonably priced. However, if you're trying to eak out the last inch of clearance so you can get through the doorway, then the problem won't really be resolved until you're at about 135 degrees which a railing may obstruct because the back-face-corner of the door will still be swinging through the effective / "free and clear" opening width.
If you just want it to open further for a sense of space, then your looking to a commercial closer... the benefit of the hager and that class of closer is the lifetime warranty on replacement. All oil filled closers will leak, it's just a matter of when. Nice to have a free replacement as long as your going to tap a door so the next unit fits in same fastener location, and you'd just swap bodies so you can keep the arm and not have to redo more.