I'd like to replace my kitchen sink with one of the same dimensions. However, there is wood cabinetry concealing the entire underside of the sink. Perhaps it is standard to have the same sink wall thickness on the front and back, and thus I could just measure the inside of the basin and double the front wall thickness?
A guideline is at most 4 inches from the lip of the counter to the front of the sink. This has to do with sink access for little people.
The back does not have to equal the front, but you need to keep space for your faucets of course. The issue is mostly the clearance required by the faucet, underneath. Usually that's another 3 inches or more, but read the specs.
The drain underneath can generally easily be moved to reach further back or front, or sideways as needed, to meet the above requirements.