I have been able to hook it up so that the switch itself will turn on and connect with my phone, but I just can't get the light to turn on with this switch. I tried hooking it up the same way the old one was hooked up and it didn't work. I tried hooking it up according to the writing on the switch, and that didn't work. I have tried leaving some wires out, different wires in different places, turning the whole breaker board off and on again(just in case) and I have not been able to get the light to turn on. I'm wondering if this will even work with this kind of setup.
You do not need a three way dimmer. The dimmer you have will work fine. Your existing switch is a single toggle switch. It's confusing because you have a black wire connected to a screw terminal and a black wire shoved into a backstab,(which is the same connection as the screw terminal). With the breaker "off" take the two black wires from your existing switch and connect them to the line wire from your new dimmer. Connect the red wire from your existing switch to the load wire from your dimmer. Connect the white wire from your dimmer to the neutral group in the box and connect the ground wires.