I think there's a way along a single branch to map out what's closest to the breaker and what's closest to the end of the line. It's somewhat dependent on wiring quality, having it consistent along the branch under test.
You need a voltmeter and a 1500W space heater.
- Unplug everything you know about from the branch.
- measure +note the voltage at each outlet on the branch.
- plug in the space heater and turn it on full blast.
- re-measure the voltages at each outlet.
If the outlet is between the heater and panel, it will have higher voltage than the heater's outlet. the heater should have basically the same voltage as all other outlets on the branch that are further away from the panel than the heater.
Highly simplified and exaggerated for clarity, here's what that looks like in a perfect sim:
The 10 ohm resistor connecting "live and neutral" is the space heater, and the 1 ohms resistors represent the old wiring. All the slots after the heater are the same voltage, while in front of the heater the voltage drops off a little on it's way to the heater.
I think this could help you not only index the nodes, but also map out where your weakest wiring; the segments that drop the most voltage would be primae candidates for replacement.