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We are renovating an apartment in a house in Germany built in 1957.

I am unsure what kind of floor construction I am looking at. The concrete floor is covered by a soft brown fibrous layer about 1.5 cm thick, which is in turn covered by a hard matte black non-odorous layer with a gap of about 1 cm to the wall. What could these materials be? Could they contain asbestos?

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    Certainly prime time period for "yes, could contain asbestos" but as usual, the only way to know is to get it tested. The black layer is as much more more suspect as the fibrous layer, since "black mastic" was a very common asbestos containing material of the era.
    – Ecnerwal
    Feb 6, 2021 at 14:57
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    Ignorance is bliss. "an apartment in a house" - so, tenets? That may change things, especially if you confirm that it's a hazardous material. Unoccupied? go nuts. - In the US, "Do-it-yourself asbestos removal is limited to residential property. If the property is commercial, a certified abatement professional must do the work." – thespruce.com
    – Mazura
    Feb 6, 2021 at 21:04

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This turned out to be "Gussasphaltestrich" ("asphalt screed"?) on an insulation layer of coconut fibers. Lab analyses showed that the screed did not contain asbestos or PAH.

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