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All subsections of the 2014 NEC 210.8(A & B) start off with "All 125v, single phase, 15- and 20-ampere receptacles..." I see no such requirement for 220v outlets. Can a 220v outlet be installed without GFCI protection? I'm thinking specifically in a workshop/garage setting, but this could apply to dryer or oven as well.

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It is a 2020 NEC change

210.8(A) Dwelling Units. All 125-volt through 250-volt receptacles installed in the locations specified in 210.8(A)(1) through (A)⁠(11) and supplied by single-phase branch circuits rated 150 volts or less to ground shall have ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel.

(1) Bathrooms

(2) Garages and also accessory buildings that have a floor located at or below grade level not intended as habitable rooms and limited to storage areas, work areas, and areas of similar use

If your state is still on 2017 or earlier, you're fine. If you are on 2020 then this is the rule (unless you have a local exception).

This would apply to typical dryer receptacles. Ovens, however, are sometimes connected to a receptacle and sometimes hard-wired. If they use a receptacle then specific rules about location will determine whether they need GFCI or not.

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