I was thinking of putting a bed in my basement...There is an exit to the side door up the stairs to the outside plus I have a basement door that leads to the garage and outside.
Sleeping rooms shall have an egress window or a door that opens directly to the outside. (See ICC R302.6.) The door cannot be in a hallway or open into the house or garage.
Garages are to be separated from single family residences by 1/2” gypsum board on garage side ONLY, and the garage cannot open into a sleeping room. (See ICC Table R302.6.)
The door between the garage and house shall be a solid wood door a minimum of 1 3/8” thick and is NOT permitted into a sleeping room. (See ICC R302.5.1.1.)
Well first of all for safety reasons you seem covered. You have exits in two directions and possibly three if the regular windows can fit a human.
From a code aspect there is nothing that says you cannot put a bed in your basement. Now there are real estate listing rules that do not count a living space as a bedroom in a basement unless it meets certain criteria.
For most home listings there must be a door that you can walk out of in the basement for a room to be considered a bedroom in a basement. You seem to have that in the door to the garage. Also allowable is an egress window.
That being said you can put a bed where ever you want and there are no laws against that.