How much minimal vertical distance is required between the kitchen counter top and window frame for placing an electrical outlet? We are starting a kitchen remodel.
Precious little. You can use receptacles built into surface conduit. These can be as little as 1-1/4" high, such as Legrand Plugmold.
This doesn't have GFCI protection onboard, but you'd use the downline protection feature of a GFCI breaker, deadfront, or nearby GFCI receptacle.