I am wondering how long after applying the stain do I need to wait before applying urethane. The weather in my parts is a bit capricious, so I am keen to keep wood outside as little as possible.
Wood is sensitive to humidity. Taking indoor furniture and leaving it outside for extended periods (especially in the humidity and rain!!!) is inviting warpage later.
You are better off giving stain all the time you possibly can give it, regardless of your olfactory sensibilities. Most of the off-gassing will occur in the hours after staining, so when it’s dry to the touch, consider bringing it indoors.
When you “rush it”, you wind up with defects, and stain/sealer defects are not feasible to “fix”. With the inexpensive pine furniture I use, I just consider it a $70 lesson, Freecycle the faulty furniture, and buy another piece and go again.