Water can only flow so fast underground because it is flowing through soil. This is unlike above ground where flow can keep increasing either by getting faster or deeper or wider.
You probably took more water out than the well can supply over that given time. It takes time for it to recover because the soil and water profile around your well is affected for some distance away from the well. To visualize, think of a shop vacuum sucking up water on the floor, it sucks some up in the general area without affecting the entire floor and then takes time for the surrounding water to flow into the now water-less area. During the recovery period you can still get water out, or see it, but it will not be the full amount and will deplete completely faster.
Your well will recover soon, just give it time. Then don't over use it. In fact, it sounds like it did already recover
If you have water in the house but no pressure it sounds like your pump got damaged when the well went dry. A capped artesian well is a pressurized system which is why you have some water flow. Your pump provides the remainder of the pressure and flow.
When a well pump goes dry it can be damaged. There are parts of it that need lubricant and the lubricant is the water. If the water goes away, so doe the lubricant.
You'll need to have the pump pulled, checked and probably repaired