When I come down in the morning and switch my ceiling fan on it sets off the fire alarms. It shouldn't be set off by a surge in the circuit as far as I know as the fan is downstairs and the smoke alarms are connected to the upstairs lighting circuit. I have got a box for the alarms on the wall with the option to locate alarm, test alarm and silence alarm but when I press the silence alarm button it just seems to reset the alarm and it goes off again. It only happens in the morning when the fan is first switched on.
There are two types of smoke detectors, Ionization and photoelectric. If you have the latter, it might be that they have some particulate around the photocell and when the fan goes off it disturbs the dust enough to simulate smoke. If you know your type and manufacturer you can check your manual (many are online) and follow the cleaning procedures.
If you don't know the manufacturer sometimes you can bag the smoke detectors with a "shower cap" or a plastic bag and a rubber band and see if turning on the fans will set of the alarm.
After that it gets a little complicated and you might need to consult an alarm specialist in your area.