GFCI and AFCI are as different as a seat belt, vs. the barrels on the highway that absorb impact energy if you would otherwise smash into a concrete bridge abutment. They are both vaguely about safety, but do totally different things.
ThreePhaseEel discusses how some AFCIs include a limited GFPE capability, since it's a cheap way to detect some arc faults.
However, your fault is completely unrelated to AFCI
and may not be an arc fault at all. It is quite possible that your device's hot or neutral wire shorted to ground directly and definitively, with no partial contact, hesitation or sputtering. Then there wouldn't be any arcing to speak of, so not much for an AFCI to detect, if you had one, which you don't.
But it's definitely a diversion of current. Now, current is flowing from hot to ground, or from neutral to ground, causing currents to take three paths: out and back the normal hot/neutral, and also back the safety ground. That means the hot/neutral currents are unequal, which is what the GFCI is looking for.
This misdirection of current is what tripped your GFCI.
You could build a device whose entire purpose was to create snap-crackle-pop harmonics (the "sound" of arcing, you've heard it, which is what AFCIs listen for). let's call this machine Alice. The GFCI would not be bothered by Alice. The GFCI would cheerfully let Alice operate indefinitely, as long as hot current equaled neutral current.
It's also possible - really quite likely - that your device did produce some arc-fault "noises" of sputtering as it failed. Nobody knows, because nobody was listening.
An AFCI doesn't care about ground faults (unless it does)
Conversely, you could build a machine called George, whose entire thing is to induce ground faults: returning neutral current on the ground wire, or having leakage from hot to ground (current-limited so it doesn't trip the overcurrent protection).
As ThreePhaseEel discusses, some AFCIs will notice and trip, because they include a weaker, equipment-protection-only GFCI (GFPE) as a cheap way to detect arc faults to ground. This machine would detect George by virtue of its GFPE feature.
However, there are also AFCIs on the market which operate solely by listening: they do not provide GFPE; they make up for it by being really good listeners. These units don't even need a neutral wire! They wire like a normal breaker, and the manufacturer doesn't even make a 2-pole AFCI; they tell you to use two 1-poles and handle-tie them. Without a neutral wire, these AFCIs are oblivious to any ground fault. These AFCIs would never even hear George, because George doesn't make snap-crackle-pop sounds.