My basement has old electrical wiring, looks like it was a replacement for some even older knob and tube (which they largely left in place of course). While they did wire up lighting somewhat, though far from optimal, they did nearly no outlets. They also did no proper light switching, so it's a sea of pull chain lamp holders, excluding a couple thoughtlessly placed light switches that control just one lamp holder. There is one duplex receptacle and a dryer receptacle, that is it.
The basement walls are a mix of faced and unfaced concrete (possibly some cinder) blocks. They added a crawlspace, which was thankfully enclosed. The basement is not dry as it should be, so it has a running dehumidifier, and looks like a prior owner extended the house envelope into the basement. Like most everything done, that also was shoddy DIY.
I want to correct the entire basement electrical, get proper outlets for usage, the basement has a second room which I've been using for a workshop. As of now I'm only able to use my portable tools though, since only near the dryer is there that one badly overloaded duplex receptacle. There is also the main electrical panel, with a second small load center next to it, on the same wall as the clothes washer and dryer. The two panels, and the receptacles, are mounted on plywood. I'm assuming the plywood is just screwed directly to the wall.
I believe the DIY house envelope extension, and the dehumidifier, were attempts to control the moisture/corrosion problem in the basement. I do plan on doing that properly, sealing crawl space vents, replacing any badly corroded galvanized ductwork. My ceiling is just exposed joists (on 16), and at least they didn't break codes on stapling Romex.
What is the best practice way to run electrical lines from the exposed joist ceiling to place electrical receptacles and proper light switches on block walls? Always on plywood first? Anything under the plywood to deal with potential wood rot? How should the wall lines be protected? I'm having the whole thing re-wired, so what is the proper way to do it? Romex in something like a conduit? How would that be attached to the block wall?