From the floor to 5½'
The answer to your question is 5½', as per NEC 210.52 point 4:
210.52 Dwelling Unit Receptacle Outlets. This section
provides requirements for 125-volt, 15- and 20-ampere receptacle outlets. The receptacles required by this section shall be in
addition to any receptacle that is:
(1) Part of a luminaire or appliance, or
(2) Controlled by a wall switch in accordance with
210.70(A)(1), Exception No. 1, or
(3) Located within cabinets or cupboards, or
(4) Located more than 1.7 m (5½ ft) above the floor
As to your bonus question, a receptacle can be as low on the wall as you wish; in fact, it can even be a floor receptacle in a floor box and still count for this, as long as it is within 18" of the wall, as per NEC 250.52(A)(3):
(3) Floor Receptacles. Receptacle outlets in or on floors shall
not be counted as part of the required number of receptacle
outlets unless located within 450 mm (18 in.) of the wall.