Recently bought a house with a furnace/water heater utility room in the basement surrounded by a bedroom and playroom space. We just had a water filtration system put in this room that requires a plug. I thought it was really odd that there was no outlet receptacle in this room. My plan is to piggyback off the bedroom receptacle, but I want to make sure that there's nothing in the code about not putting receptacles X distance from water heater or furnace. I'm tracking that it's unfinished basement so the first outlet of the double duplex needs to be GFCI. Am I missing anything? Thanks!
Nothing special needed here except the GFCI since this room is not finished. Finished rooms in a basement depending on how long back may not have AFCI or GFCI protection but adding a receptacle in an unfinished basement room would require a GFCI even if no water present. The outlet can be directly adjacent to the equipment no spacing is required no covers or anything else is required by the national electric code.
If there’s any chance of moisture in the room use weatherproof receptacle boxes and UF-B plastic sheathed cable - more abrasion resistance too, so good in a utility room. You can get moisture resistant clamps for the cable that screw directly into the box.
Alternatively you could use EMT and draw separate wires and ground. Again I’d see if there are moisture resistant fittings and boxes available if the room tends to have any moisture.
Check code requirement for distances of outlets - from any permanent fixtures that dispense water, like faucets. Water heaters do have drain fittings, and piping on top.
If the filtration system has a hookup box, you can use a sheathed hookup, typically epoxy coated flexible with (2 or 3 wires & ground) larger gauge wires, such as #10. These are usually used for outdoor appliances like a/c compressors, but I think they’re a good choice for many utility appliances, and in some cases are required. They can be purchased at supply houses and possibly at bigbox stores.
Another requirement may be a remote switch or way to remove power from the appliance(s) such as a wire you can unplug or if it’s hardwired, it should be attached to a box with a builtin cutoff switch. This allows the appliance to be de-energized locally for service.