Cutting should be easy
This is true for generally all tool-bit-upon-steel work. You should
- cut long, continuous "chips" (strings, really) that come off like pasta, to the point where you sometimes have to intervene to break them, to keep them from rats-nesting around the drill.
- run quite cool, to where you can disengage the bit from the work and grab it with your fingers without fear, and it feels barely warm.
- move efficiently through the work
If anything else is happening, stop doing that RIGHT NOW.
Continuing not only wrecks the bit, but can work-harden the surface of the hole, which will make it harder to start doing it properly.
Feeds and Speeds
Mainly, we are concerned with feeds and speeds. The rotating speed of the tool (e.g. drill bit) and the speed of movement into the material. The machine industry has exhaustive tables and formulas which serve as starting points, but it's also helpful to listen to what the tool is telling you. You are seeking the "sweet spot".
To be clear, one type of "wrong feed" is too little feed. Unfortunately with hand drills, there is no such thing as feed rate, and "feed force" is an imprecise substitute. Being gentle/wimpy is the most common error.
Pilot holes help
On a large bit diameter, the pressure required to hit the "sweet spot" may be impractical with a hand tool. In that case, drill a smaller hole of a size where it is practical. Then step up in increments. The hole also makes a good "pilot hole". It's hard to gauge feeds and speeds when overdrilling in small increments, but again you have it right if you have cool fast running with long chips.
Honestly, I'm a big fan of pilot holes simply because they are easier to position precisely. Punch a dimple with a center punch, and start with a small drill, which will stay in the dimple better than a big one. My go-to is 1/8”. A hole, even a small one, also makes drilling much easier. Probably because the larger drill doesn't have to cut the center, which is difficult because the center of the drill is at the wrong speed (nearly 0).
On lubricant, I am pretty slack about that if the cutting is going well. After all, things aren't getting hot, so it's only lubricant, not heat removal, and efficient cutting is easy on tool heads. In the shop, cutting oil or GST are right at hand, but in the field on small holes, I'll use spit, or even nothing if I'm "dialed in" and being highly productive. Really, anything will do - motor oil, 3-in-1, a spray can of Liquid Wrench, remember, we're not letting things get hot!
It goes without saying not to use Harbor Freight or other cheap Cheese drill bits. Again, whole industries are built on the premise that you can drill hundreds of holes with a single bit, so bit quality is no excuse.
Maker spaces are your friend
One more thing: you might consider using a drill press, because that allows much higher pressure and much finer control, including direct control of feed. Don't buy one (and especially don't buy cheap Cheese, as people are wont to do for one-job tools). However check out a local maker space and see what it'll take to get some time on their competent drill press.